## Definition of Statistics

Statistics is the science which deals with the collection, classification and tabulation of numerical facts as a basis for the explanation, description and comparison of phenomena.

In the singular sense, Statistics means science of Statistics or statistical methods. It refers to techniques or methods relating to collection, classification, presentation, analysis and interpretation of quantitative data.

Statistics is defined both in singular sense and plural sense.

## Types of Subject Matter of Statistics

Subject matter of statistics Includes two components:

Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics.

**1. Descriptive Statistics **

** **Descriptive statistics refer to those methods which are used for the collection, presentation as well as analysis of data.

These methods are relate to such estimation as ‘measurement of Central tendencies’ measurement of dispersion, measurement of correlation, etc.

**Example: **Descriptive statistics is used when you estimate the average height of the secondary student in your school.

Likewise, descriptive statistics is used when you find that marks in science and mathematics of the students in all classes are intimately related to each other.

**2. Inferential Statistics**

Inferential statistics refers to all such methods by which conclusions are drawn relating to the Universe of population on the basis of a given sample in statistics the term Universe or population on the basis of a given sample.

In Statistics, the term universe population refers to the aggregate of all items or units relating to any subject.

**Example: **if your class teacher estimates average weight of the entire class on the basis of average weight of only a sample of students of the class, he is using inferential statistics.

## What is Statistical Tools ?

Each stage of the statistical study involves the use of certain standard techniques or methods. These techniques or methods are called statistical tools.

Thus, there are statistical tools used for the collection of data, like the ‘Sample’ and ‘Census’ techniques. Array of data and tally bars are the standard techniques used for organisation of data.

Tables, graphs and diagrams are the well-known statistical tools for the presentation of data.

Averages and percentage are the commonly used techniques for the analysis of data. Interpretation of data is often done in terms of the magnitude of averages, percentages or coefficients of correlation /regression.

Given below are some important MCQs on statistics to analyse your understanding of the topic. The answers are also given for your reference.

## Statistics MCQs

### Multiple Choice Questions: Choose the Correct Answer

#### 1. **Which of the following statements is not an example of Statistics?**

(a) Birth rate in India is 18 per thousand as compared to 8 per thousand in the US.

(b) Ramesh has a rupee 100 note in his pocket.

(c) Over the last 10 years, India has won 60 test matches in cricket and lost 50.

(d) Average pocket allowance of the students of class XI is rupee 500 per month.

**Answer : (b) **

**2. Which of the following is correct regarding Statistics?**

(a) Aggregate of facts

(b) Numerically expressed

(c) Affected by multiplicity of causes

(d) All of these

**Answer : (d)**

**3. In Singular sense Statistics means:**

(a) Statistical Science

(b) Statistical law

(c) both (a) and (b)

(d) none of these

**Answer : (c)**

**4. The aggregate of data is called:**

(a) Statistics

(b) editing of data

(c) analysis of data

(d) collection of data

**Answer : (a)**

**5. Statistics is both a Science as well as ……..**

(a) Sociology

(b) Geography

(c) English

(d) An art

**Answer : (d)**

**6. Which of the following is not a function of Statistics?**

(a) Economic Forecasting

(b) Economic Equilibrium

(c) Political Equilibrium

(d) Construction of Economic Models

**Answer : (c )**

**7. The first stage of statistical study is……**

(a) Analysis of Data

(b) Presentation of Data

(c) Organisation of Data

(d) Collection of Data

**Answer : (d)**

**8. In Plural sense which of the following is not a characteristic of statistics?**

(a) Aggregate of Data

(b) Only Expressed in Words

(c) Affected by Multiplicity of causes

(d) Collected in a Systematic manner

**Answer : (b)**

**9. Which of the following indicates a stage of Statistical study?**

(a) Collection of Data

(b) Presentation of Data

(c) Analysis of Data

(d) All of these

**Answer : (d)**

**10. With regards to distrust of Statistics which of the following statements is not correct?**

(a) Statistics is a rainbow of lies

(b) Statistics are tissues of falsehood

(c) Statistics express the facts in numbers

(d) There are three kinds of lies-lies, demand lies and statistics

**Answer : (c )**

**11. Which of the following is an economic activity?**

(a) Production

(b) Consumption

(c) Distribution

(d) All of these

**Answer : (d)**

**12. Which of the following statements is incorrect?**

(a) Resources have alternative uses

(b) All numbers are Statistics

(c) Macroeconomics studies large aggregates

(d) Statistics studies only the aggregates of quantitative facts

**Answer : (b)**

**13. The process of converting raw materials into goods is called :**

(a) Production

(b) Saving

(c) Investment

(d) exchange

**Answer : (a)**

**14. Which of the following is a branch of statistics?**

(a) Descriptive Statistics

(b) Inferential Statistics

(c) Industry Statistics

(d) Both A and B

**Answer : (d)**

**15. Statistics is :**

(a) Facts

(b) Presentation

(c) Numerical data

(d) None of these

**Answer : (b)**

**16. The control chart and procedures of descriptive statistics which are used to enhance a procedure can be classified into which of these categories?**

(a) Behavioral tools

(b) Serial tools

(c) Industry Statistics

(d) Statistical tools

**Answer : (d)**

**17. Which of the following can also be represented as sample statistics?**

(a) Lowercase Greek letters

(b) Roman letters

(c) Associated Roman alphabets

(d) Uppercase Greek letters

**Answer : (b)**

**18. Specialized processes such as graphical and numerical methods are utilized in which of the following?**

(a) Education Statistics

(b) Descriptive Statistics

(c) Business Statistics

(d) Social Statistics

**Answer : (b)**

**19. What is the scale applied in statistics which imparts a difference of magnitude and proportions is considered as?**

(a) Exponential scale

(b) Goodness scale

(c) Ratio scale

(d) Satisfactory scale

**Answer : (c )**

**20. Stages of Statistical Study are……**

(a) Two stages

(b) Three stages

(c) Five stages

(d) Six stages

**Answer : (c )**